This review discusses the importance of investigating both sex and gender differences in addiction and relapse in studies of humans and in animal models. Addiction is both a cultural and biological phenomenon. Sex and gender differences are not solely determined by our biology, nor are they entirely cultural; there are interactions between biology and the environment that are continuously played out throughout development. Lessons from the historical record illustrate how context and attitudes affect the way that substance use in men and women is regarded. Finally, cultural and environmental influences may differentially affect men and women and affect how they respond to drugs of abuse and to treatment protocols.
This course is based on the reading-based online article, Sociocultural Context for Sex Differences in Addiction created by Jill B. Becker, PhD, Michelle McClellan, PhD, and Beth Glover Reed, PhD in 2016.
Course Material Authors
Course Material Authors authored the material only, and were not involved in creating this CE course. They are identified here for your own evaluation of the relevancy of the material this course is based on.
Jill B. Becker, PhD
Dr. Becker has been studying sex differences in and sexual differentiation of the neural systems mediating drug abuse and motivation for over thirty years. Experiments in the laboratory investigate the effects of psychomotor stimulants on behavior in rat and how ovarian hormones act in the brain to influence drug taking behaviors. She has published multiple papers.
Michelle McClellan, PhD
Dr. McClellan is an Assistant Professor in the history department at University of Michigan. She is an active public historian, has worked in a house museum, curated exhibits, and supervised preservation projects. She has been working on Bringing Big Data to Studies of the Epigenetics of Gender and Addiction along with her co-authors.
Beth Glover Reed, PhD
Dr. Reed's current research is designed to a) identify approaches for working both on alcohol and other drug problems (AOD) and intimate partner violence (IPV) together; b) explore why joint work occurs infrequently despite need, and c) determine what can enhance effective attention to both issues together. Other areas of research/scholarly interest focus on educational strategies and other interventions to increase social justice and social justice practice, and the application of multiple types of theorizing, including feminisms, to social justice, social problems and social change.
Francesca Paladino Lux is a Licensed Professional Counselor Supervisor, Certified Clinical Supervisor, and Licensed Clinical Addictions Specialist. She has earned a Graduate Certificate specialty in Substance Use Counseling. She also has completed a specialty track in school counseling with a special interest in Play Therapy and Filial Therapy. Francesca has been in the helping profession since 2002, when she obtained her Master’s Degree in Counseling, from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, a rigorous CACREP accredited program.
Counselors, marriage and family therapists, psychologists and social workers. This course is appropriate for all levels of knowledge.
After taking this course, you should be able to:
Define the terms sex and gender and describe their cultural context
Identify Sex and Gender differences related to Addiction
To recall environmental Influences, Historical Perspectives and the use of drugs
Disclosure to Learners
Disclosure of Relevant Financial Relationships
CE Learning Systems adheres to the ACCME's Standards for Integrity and Independence in Accredited
Continuing Medical Education. Any individuals in a position to control the content of a CE activity –
including faculty, planners, reviewers, or others ― are required to disclose all relevant financial
relationships with ineligible entities (formerly known as commercial interests).
The following relevant financial relationships have been disclosed by this activity's planners, faculty, and
Planners and Reviewers
The planners of this activity have reported that they have no relevant financial relationships.
Faculty: Francesca Paladino Lux LCMHCS, LCAS, CCS
No relevant financial relationships.
There is no commercial support for this distance-learning course.
All exam questions for the course are visible on this page for members of Addiction Counselor CE.
Membership is free, and you can register today!
You'll only pay when you're ready to purchase a course, or if you take advantage of the Unlimited Package.
If you're already a member, please sign in to see the exam questions for this and all other courses.
Discuss this course
You can share your thoughts about this course after you pass the exam.
Is this course approved for my continuing education requirements?
Yes, most likely. Look Up Your State Board for more detailed information. Logged-in site members will see the relevant approval information displayed in the Approvals tab for every course.
Do you have accommodations for my disability (ADA)?
If you are having trouble using Addiction Counselor CE, please contact us! We would be happy to accommodate your needs right away, and your input will help us make Addiction Counselor CE more accessible for future users too.
How do I enroll in this course?
Use the Enroll In This Course button and just follow the instructions! You don't pay anything until you're ready
to take an exam.
What do I have to do to complete the course?
To complete the course, review the course objectives, then review the material, and then pass the exam with a score of 75% or greater and lastly complete an evaluation.
How do I access the materials?
Most of our courses are based on online articles available for free to the public. Some courses, such as
those based on books, require that you purchase the material. Use the Materials tab above for more
info. You don't need to enroll in the course to access materials, whether free or paid. So you always
know what you're getting into before you commit to taking the exam.
How do I get my certificate?
Your certificate(s) will be available to download or email immediately when you pass the course exam and complete the evaluation.
Can I contact you for more help?
Yes! Use the Help widget at the bottom-right of the screen anywhere on Addiction Counselor CE to search our help docs, or to ask our support team for help. Unlike most of our competitors, Addiction Counselor CE has live US-based support reps to help you by email, chat, or phone.