The development of alcohol dependence is posited to involve numerous changes in brain chemistry (i.e., neurotransmission) that lead to physiological signs of withdrawal upon abstinence from alcohol as well as promote vulnerability to relapse in dependent people. Studies of these neuroadaptive changes have been aided by the development of animal models of alcohol dependence, withdrawal, and relapse behavior. These animal models, as well as findings obtained in humans, have shed light on the effects that acute and chronic alcohol exposure have on signaling systems involving neurotransmitters as well as on other signaling molecules. Some of these systems are targets of currently available therapeutic agents for alcohol dependence. This publication discusses this field of study.
This course is based on the reading-based online article, How Adaptation of the Brain to Alcohol Leads to Dependence: A Pharmacological Perspective created by Peter Clapp, Ph.D.; Sanjiv V. Bhave, Ph.D.; and Paula L. Hoffman, Ph.D. in 2008.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Alcohol Research and Health, Volume 21, Number 4, 2008
Course Material Author
Peter Clapp, Ph.D.; Sanjiv V. Bhave, Ph.D.; and Paula L. Hoffman, Ph.D.
Peter Clapp, Ph.D., is a postdoctoral fellow, Sanjiv V. Bhave, Ph.D., is a senior instructor, and Paula L. Hoffman, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.
Peter Clapp, Ph.D.; Sanjiv V. Bhave, Ph.D.; and Paula L. Hoffman, Ph.D. authored the material only, and was not involved in creating this CE course. They are identified here for your own evaluation of the relevancy of the material this course is based on.
Dan Rebek, Ph.D.
This course is recommended for health care professionals, especially addiction counselors, psychologists, mental health counselors, social workers, and nurses who seek knowledge about how adaptation of the brain to alcohol leads to dependence. It is appropriate for intermediate to advanced levels of participants' knowledge.
After taking this course, you should be able to:
Discuss the relationship of glutamate systems to alcohol dependence and the involvement of other brain-signaling systems such as serotonin, endogenous cannabinoids, and CREB protein.
Describe animal models used to study neuroadaptation, and discuss signal transmission in the nervous system.
Explain the relationship of alcohol dependence to the opiate systems, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems, stress, and corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF).
Disclosure of Relevant Financial Relationships
Disclosure of Relevant Financial Relationships
CE Learning Systems, LLC is an independent provider of continuing medical education. CE Learning Systems, LLC has no proprietary or financial interest in medical or healthcare products over which the FDA (USA) or EMA (EU) has regulatory authority.
In accordance with our disclosure policies, CE Learning Systems, LLC is committed to ensuring balance, independence, objectivity, and scientific rigor for all accredited continuing education. These policies include assigning relevance to, and mitigating, all perceived or real conflicts of interest between any individual with control over the content and any ineligible company (commercial interest).
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any investigational, off-label, or non-FDA approved content or discussion
CE Learning Systems, LLC has reviewed these disclosures, assigned relevance based on the relationship and scope of content, and identified those with the potential to compromise the goals and educational integrity of the education. Relevant relationships, or lack thereof, are shared with the learner.
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All recommendations involving clinical medicine is based on evidence that is accepted within the medical profession as adequate justification for their indications and contraindications in the care of patients.
All scientific research referred to, reported, or used in accredited continuing education in support or justification of a patient care recommendation conforms to the generally accepted standards of experimental design, data collection, and analysis.
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The planners have reported the following: There are no relevant disclosures.
Course Material Author
The authors have disclosed any disclosures within the material.
Course Creator: Dan Rebek, Ph.D.
There are no relevant disclosures.
There is no commercial support for this distance-learning course.
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